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03/20/2016

Nauryz is a holiday of spring renewal in Kazakhstan. According to the Eastern calendar Nauryz-the beginning of the new year, coincides with the day of the vernal equinox. For Kazakhs, this holiday is a symbol of spring renewal, celebration of love, fertility and friendship.

The holiday Nauryz is one of the oldest holidays on Earth. It has been celebrated for more than five thousand years as a holiday of spring and renewal of nature by many peoples of Front and Central Asia, and according to some reports - and the Eastern Slavs. Historical information about this holiday can be found in the works of many ancient and medieval authors. In the Oriental chronology, it corresponds to the Iranian New year (Nowruz). Traditions of Nauryz celebration were passed down fr om generation to generation by Kazakhs, Uzbeks and Uighurs. The Tajiks called it "Gulgardon" or "Gulnavruz", Tatar "Nardugan" and the ancient Greeks he was known as "Patra", the Roots of this holiday can be found in ancient pagan rituals. In itself, the form of celebration from ancient times carried the principles of love for nature. Despite the age, this holiday is preserved in the national memory, and now acquired a new spiritual and ethical meaning.

It was believed that this day is updated in nature, thunders the first spring thunder, swelling buds on the trees and vegetation grows wildly.

In the past, the Kazakhs called Nauryz the Day of the ulus of the people or the Great day of the ulus.The people happened: the more generous the holiday Nauryz will be celebrated, the more prosperous the year will be. Hence the abundance of holiday customs and attributes. On the eve of the spring equinox holiday, people cleaned the house, paid off debts, put up being in a quarrel, because, as the elderly claimed, when Nauryz enters their homes, all diseases and failures must bypass them.

According to the ancient legends of the Kazakhs, on the eve of the New Day, day and night on the ground goes old Kydyr (Kyzyr) ATA, a white-bearded old man dressed in white clothes, who sends people happiness and prosperity.

On the night before the celebration, as a sign of wishes of plenty of milk, harvest and rain, all the containers were filled with milk, Iran, grain, key water, and on the day of Nauryz everyone tried to be in a good mood, at the meeting they enclosed each other in hugs, expressed their best wishes that all the hardships and troubles.

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The celebration of Nauryz began with a traditional meeting of dawn. Meeting the dawn, all adults, youth and children, picking up the shovel, hoe, gathered in an agreed place near a spring or Aryk and made it clear. Then, all together, under the guidance of the venerable old men plant trees. At the same time, according to the established tradition, the words were pronounced: "Let the tree remain in the memory of a person, rather than a herd, "" Cut down one tree-plant ten!".

After the ritual events of the three people in the image of zhyrshy - Barker(crier) went around all the streets, squares, courtyards and called everyone to the feast. They dressed in bright, festive costumes. They could be the characters of Kazakh fairy tales-Aldar Kose, Zhirenshe and beautiful Karashash. After that, they began a festive presentation. People had fun, congratulated each other on the coming of the New year, wished each other good, sang songs that have long been composed specifically for this holiday - Nauryz Zhyr, arranged the fight between men and women, competitions in tongue twisters - zhanyltpash, guessing riddles - zhumbak.

These days preparing a lot of food, which symbolized wealth and abundance in the coming year. At noon, the bull was cut and cooked from its meat dish "Bel-koterer", which means "straightening camp", because the bull was considered one of the strongest animals, and the food from it gave people strength and endurance.

The holiday table was laid in each family. The meal was timed to noon, before and after a Mullah recited prayers in honor of the ancestors. At the conclusion the eldest of those present gave a blessing (Bata) so that year in and year prosperity never left the family. The presence of the number "7", which represents seven days of the week - a unit of time of universe eternity, was obligatory for the Kazakhs during the celebration of Nauryz: seven bowls with a drink Nauryz-kozhe prepared from seven varieties of seven types of cereals were placed in front of the aksakals.

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The seven components normally consisted of meat, salt, fat, onions, wheat, Kurt, irimshik (cottage cheese).

The celebration has always been accompanied by mass games, traditional horse races, entertainment. In the villages put the swing "Altybakan".

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And the most well-known and loved among the people was the game, "ICIS-wikis" ("Meet each other") and "Audaryspek", during which the horsemen pull each other out of the saddle.

Nauryz holiday is not complete without contests in national sports — kazakhsha kures, Toguz kumalak, horse racing ( baiga).

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And not only boys, but also girls participated in games. In the national game "Kyz Kuu" the girl summoned the horseman on the competition with the condition that if he wins, will acquire the right to her hand and heart, and if she wins, the horseman must obey her and fulfill all her desires. In such cases, Nauryz turned into wedding celebrations.

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All people, regardless of gender, age and social affiliation, were exempted from everyday duties and took an active part in fun and games on equal rights.

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The day ended autism representation, wh ere two bard in poetic form competed in the songs. They stopped the contest with the sunset over the horizon, when good triumphs over evil. Then they started a fire, and people with torches lit from it bypassed all the surroundings of the village, sang and danced, thus completing the holiday of spring renewal and equinox.

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The history of Nauryz has a difficult fate. During the period of addition of the totalitarian system, when all the nation were found to be insignificant, and all mention of the traditional heritage listed as anachronisms and the remnants of ancient times Nauryz was repealed (1926) for the First time after long years of oblivion, in Kazakhstan, it was celebrated in 1988 and, oddly enough, received a wide public resonance. Official recognition Holiday Nauryz acquired March 15, 1991 after the Decree Of the President of the Kazakh SSR "on the national holiday of spring - "Nauryz". The President announced March 22, the day of spring equinox, a holiday - "Nauryz". Since that time, a wide celebration of Nauryz has begun throughout the country.

Of course, the modern outlines of the holiday are significantly different from their previous content. It is not only theatrical performances and richly decorated yurts, deliciously cooked Nauryz-kozhe, but also holding charitable events, folk sporting games, care of green spaces, planting trees, cleaning parks and other recreation areas, streets and squares.

Nowadays "Nauryz" has become a national holiday of spring, labor and unity. Today this holiday is equally dear to all peoples living in multinational Kazakhstan. Ancient holiday Nauryz harmoniously transformed into modern life while preserving the continuity of traditions of antiquity.

Interesting fact:

1. Nauryz is celebrated for the whole month from March 22 to April 21-22.

2. In the West of Kazakhstan in Mangistau and Atyrau regions, Nauryz celebration begins on March 14, and is called "Amal", the traditional element of which is the rite "korisu" , when everyone should greet each other with handshakes with both hands, and saying "Zhyl Kutty bolsyn!"(Happy new year).

3. Nauryz celebration is not connected with religion. Its exact history is unknown, but it definitely has a pre-Islamic origin. The holiday has pagan and Zoroastrian roots.

4. The celebration of Nauryz earlier began with a traditional meeting of dawn associated with an ancient ritual - "if you see a spring - clear its source."

5. Children born in this month used to be called by names derived from the word "Nauryz", for example boys Nauryzbai or Nauryzbek and girls Nauryz or Nauryzgul.

6. If in this day dropped out snow, then this it was thought good sign. Even girl's beauty in Kazakh legends is compared with white snow of Nauryz, since the month of March is usually soft and fluffy snow with a special white.

7. From post-Soviet countries celebrate Nauryz in Arabadjan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. From the countries of far abroad - in Afghanistan and Iran.

8 In Kazakhstan Nauryz was not celebrated nationally from 1926 to 1988. Since 2001 Nauryz has been declared a state holiday, and since 2009 it has been celebrated for 3 consecutive days since March 21. These three days in Kazakhstan are declared non-working.

9. The traditional Nauryz dish "Nauryz kozhe" consists of seven components. This cirv embodies 7 days of the week - time units of universal eternity: in front of the aksakal (white-bearded, old man) must be supplied with 7 bowls Nauryz-skin. Everyone should visit the 7 houses and invite 7 guests.

10. In Uzbekistan, Nauryz is prepared a traditional dish "Sumalak". This dish should consist of 7, mostly vegetable ingredients.

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