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03/16/2016

In Paris at the world climate conference COP21, held by the United Nations, suddenly a loud statement was made: Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway, as well as several us States after 2050 are ready to "prohibit the use and sale of cars on fuel". So the piston internal combustion engine, which faithfully served for two centuries in a row, set the date of death.

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Then what will drive humanity? The transport of the future is electric cars, which are still surrounded by many myths. We have collected the most popular speculations concerning electrical transport, and interviewing experts at COP21, tried to figure out what is true and what is not. And as a partner of ecosummit is the company Nissan, as an example, in many cases is the electro hatchback costs Leaf emerging fr om the update.

There is not enough electricity for electric vehicles

No new generating capacity is needed. For example, in the United States, according to the calculations of the independent Agency EIA, if the entire fleet of 250 million cars today transferred to the electric pull, then at night (during the so-called load failure) enough energy to charge 79% of cars. And during the day? Daily decline in energy consumption also exists: the total "free energy" will be enough for the same 79% of cars, but it is important that the car came to charge not sometime, but in the right hours. This issue is solved by the application for the smartphone, which will tell the optimal time for" filling " with electricity.

In Europe is another problem. In Denmark, Norway and many other countries wh ere alternative energy is developed, the problem is not the deficit, but the excess generation! So a significant part of the European fleet is already profitable for you to convert to electric. Moreover, due to energy-saving technologies, electricity consumption throughout the world is constantly falling, and the power remains — in the future, these "free kilowatts" and will charge the batteries of electric vehicles.

Electric cars are charged "forever"

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According to estimates of SAP, a manufacturer of industrial software, the optimal number of charging stations of all types ("slow" and "fast") and electric vehicle fleet must be at least 2.5:1. As for the stations CHAdeMO (marked on the map), around the world they are now about 9,800: 5,500 in Japan, 2,900 in Europe, the rest-in the United States

With the so-called" slow charging "Nissan Leaf battery" will be filled " for 4-8 hours (depending on the current). But the " fast charging "from the DC station via the connector CHAdeMO allows you to" fill " the battery by 80% in just half an hour, and in the short term the charging time will be reduced to 15 minutes. Thus, the duration of" refueling " depends on the infrastructure, so the number of charging stations around the world is constantly growing and in just 4 years increased from 150 to 9800 units.

Electricity - "dirty" energy source

In the world, 60% of all electricity is generated by thermal power plants — to get "clean" electricity, you need to burn "dirty" coal, oil or gas... But! First, the translation of the vehicle's electric range will have a place of localization of the harmful effects on the environment of the city will be able to breathe clean air, and all emissions will focus on the areas around power plants. Secondly, even the most archaic CHP emit (in terms of mileage per kilometer) much less carbon dioxide than ice: Association CHAdeMO assures that the" circle " of the electric car is three times (!) environmentally friendly.

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However, even if we assume that Western ecologists are engaged by the authorities and give the desired for the actual, there is one hard-to-argue argument. Energy liquid fuel is supplied by the same companies as motorists, but at the same time the mileage kilometer of an electric car in practice costs at least three times less than comparable to the power of a gasoline car (let's talk about this separately) — so much less crap is thrown into the atmosphere.

Lithium-ion batteries are too short-lived

Let's start from afar. In many countries, electricity tariffs depend on the time of day, so it is logical to buy energy at night, and use — during the day. For energy storage and will serve to run down the batteries! Thus, Nissan with the support of Eaton brings to the market the product "Vehicle — to-Grid" - buffer stations that extend the life of the batteries up to 25 years: 10-12 years the battery serves on the electric car, losing 20% of its capacity, and the remaining time works as a buffer.

Electricity is not profitable

Take a couple of hatchbacks Nissan — electric Leaf (109 HP) and gasoline "Tiida" (117 HP). In the combined cycle for the methodology of NEDC electric car consumes 15 kWh/100 km, while the most expensive Moscow the rate of 5.58 ruble per "kilowatt" the cost of kilometer of run will make 84 kopecks. For petrol cars with an average fuel consumption of 6.4 l/100 km and the price of a liter "ninety-fifth" 36.78 rubles kilometer will cost as much as a 2.35! Net benefit? Alas, the electric cars themselves are quite expensive: in Germany, 23 thousand euros are asked for Leaf, and petrol Pulsar (an analogue of our "Tiid") can be bought for 18 thousand.

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In many countries, the difference is now compensated by various subsidies — for example, in France, if you take a diesel car older than 14 years, you can get 10,000 euros discounts on electric cars. But! As experts predict, if environmental regulations continue to become stricter by the year 2020 petrol and diesel cars will cost the same as "trains". By the way, the most expensive component of an electric car is a traction battery: for each "kilowatt" of its capacity you need to pay 150-200 euros, so the "battery" of the basic version of the "Bodice" for 24 kWh costs about 4,500-5,000 euros.

Trucks will not be able to switch to electric traction

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Scania starts testing electric trucks, which are a hybrid train and trolleybus: behind the cab mounted pantograph, through which will receive electricity not only electric motor, but also the battery pack, outside the electrified area of the train will be able to move to the stored batteries energy, and then completely switch to the diesel engine

The main tractors, most of the life of which takes place at cruising speeds, the transition to batteries does not threaten: a purely electric lorry train will cost 150-200 thousand euros more than usual, diesel, and the power reserve for 12-ton at the current technology will be... not more than 100 km But transfer commercial vehicles to electric! While the most suitable idea engineers seem to be trolley cars — trucks equipped with pantographs so that the machine could be powered trolley, stretched wire over the road.

Electric cars are not suitable for long journeys and cold climates

In the world, 90% of drivers drive no more than 90 km every day! But you must admit: the opportunity to drive 300 km should be. That's just the efficiency of the electric transmission, which is a bunch of "battery-electric motor", with increasing speed drops - at 90 km/h Leaf consumes up to 20 kW·h... The problem is solved. First, there are already technologies to increase the capacity of the battery at a constant size. Secondly, the mass appearance of "fast charging" stations eliminates the modest power reserve.

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As for the cold, the electric vehicles can be driven at temperatures up to -30°C. However, included in the maximum "stove" will consume 5-6 kWh, dramatically reducing the "range" of the machine... However, we just have to change their habits: to warm or cool the interior will need to travel while the car is powered by the home network-then the energy for the "climate" will need much less, only to maintain temperature. The second drawback - when the" minus " lithium — ion battery is less willing to give energy-fixed by heating the battery.

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